Immune System and Infections


In recent years, even though we are not perfect, we have a game of amak being perfect hiç or, rather, a game of our desire, not being ill at all if possible and feeling good both spiritually and physically. 

In fact, although the average life of human beings is 20-25 years in the 20th century, even if we live longer or even to grow old.  

However, the most improbable result of prolonging the life span is daha immune aging lanma or rather ucu immuno senescence ömr.  

That means; In a sense, our immune system, by putting some kind of insurance system into the circuit, to protect the more vital vascular health and nervous system integrity with less damage infection increases sensitivity.   

So if you look younger and younger over 65, you're looking for your sensitivity to infection. 

This is natural and in fact a process in our favor.  

Because of prevent infections (vaccination, sanitation), manage (antibiotics, antiviral, antifungal) more possible.  

In addition, some genetic congenital diseases or diseases such as acquired diabetes, cancer, AIDS, or treatments for cancer, rheumatic diseases or inflammatory bowel diseases increase our susceptibility to infection by suppressing our immune system. 

We think that our susceptibility to infection increases when we have frequent and serious infections. 

Immune System Against Infections 

Our immune system is the most powerful, sophisticated system known to us, which continues to be healthy by satisfying millions of warnings, and still completely or even most unsolvable. 

In the newborn period, approximately 2,000 to 6,000 a day later, we encounter a large number of antigens that cannot be measured, and our immune system does what is necessary in its daily functioning. 

But even when our immune system works normally, the most common illness that a person will face during his or her life infectionsdir. 

Because infectious agents are everywhere and common, natural and inevitable guests of productive living. For example, the child you take to a playground faces millions of microorganisms. 

Most of them are by airway, ie, only by sharing respiratory tract viruses, even if they share the same environment. cold or  fluinfections such as common cold, an adult can spend 2-4 times a year, a small child 4-6 times and this is usual. 

However, it should be noted that in recent years there has been a paradigm shift associated with our ”microbiota alg terminology associated with our perception of microbes. 

This paradigm shift associated with microorganisms, which we think only sick, leads to a better understanding of our immune system. 

The microorganisms of this universe, the narrative of Ed Yong in his magnificent book den Microbiota organ, were too many, everywhere and they came billions of years ago. 

Therefore, everything that damages / inflicts bağışıklık microbiota etkil, which is supposed to be the teacher of the immune system itself, actually affects our immune system and makes us susceptible to infections. 

What these are in general; stress, diet, environmental factors and most antibiotics can be summarized as metabolic problems such as itself and of course diabetes, obesity. 

I should say very much based on the evidence that antibiotics are the external factors that make us most susceptible to infection. 

How my immune system is not working enoughIDo you? 

In order for us to think that our immune system is not sufficiently functional, the infections we have should be severe, ie there must be organ involvement such as sinuses, lungs, or frequent recurrence despite good / right treatments. 

In general, I have a frequent infection, so it cannot be managed properly, it corresponds to a prolonged, creeping viral infection. 

Let's summarize, you have a simple flu. The first three days you have a fever, your head, your muscles ache, your eyes are watered and your nose is flowing. 

The buses you took in every day, the elevators were covered with cold viruses and you got sick during a tired, nervous period. 

This disease will decrease your complaints and will make you feel as if you are a cough that lasts for up to ten weeks. 

You have started to use antibiotics, although there is nothing to shorten this usual process. Instead of resting, opening your nose, taking plenty of fluids, you take a handful of medicines and your winter turns into a nightmare. 

I just tried to summarize what happened to you when you didn't manage the first three days well. 

In the meantime, in order to strengthen the immune system in the period when you are ill, you can summarize by saying that none of the applications that do not have the foundation will not work, at best, it will be discarded or unnecessarily burdened by your metabolism. 

Here is another and important example to be given flu Disease. Its agent is such a powerful and resourceful virus that it does not allow our immune system to be recognized. It's our winter nightmare that hasn't fallen from us for hundreds of years.  

Flu too  the hastalandırıc even lethal It is a disease that can cause deaths rather than world wars. So much so, the me Spanish Flu göre epidemic had already led to more than 50-100 million deaths in the beginning of the twentieth century, according to some sources. During this epidemic, as in the case of the müş Alaska Orphans ne, almost all of the people aged 20 to 40 in Alaska were dead and children were orphaned. 

In 2009, the olmayan Swine Flu ve outbreak epidemic was mostly pregnant, young children and people without predefined risk factors. 

These examples tell us that sometimes the sickening microbe is so strong that it overcomes your immune system. This is why the flu is a disease that needs to be prevented, or treated when it starts. Vaccination is especially important in patients who have weakened immune system. 


When our immune system should be examined? 

  • In patients with frequent skin infections such as frequent cellulitis and abscess; If there is no lymphatic, venous flow problem or skin disease, neutrophil count and functions should be checked.  
  • In spite of adequate and proper treatments, HIV test and some lymphocyte functions should be studied. 
  • Frequent sinusitis is usually associated with it allergic rhinitis Sık. In addition, structural causes and inadequate treatments that obstruct sinus intestines also cause frequent and prolonged sinusitis. But it is necessary to investigate some antibody deficiencies. 
  • Pneumonia; It is not expected to be seen except for special sensitivities such as old age, smoking, allergic and chronic lung diseases and diabetes. Especially frequent pneumonia and recurrent sinusitis, otitis media or bronchitis should be investigated. 
  • Recurrent meningitis is another condition to be investigated. 

Who is the immune system Has it been suppressed? 

Diabetes, HIV infection, Renal diseases, blood diseases, malnutrition, inflammatory bowel diseases and treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, cortisone use is the situation where the immune system is suppressed. 

Prophylactic approaches such as vaccination and good management of infections are the main necessity of quality life in these patients. 

 What Is Frequent Infection Means ? 

A normal adult undergoes a number of infections per year, both related to his or her own health and changing conditions. 

The stimulatory conditions that require analysis of the immune system can be summarized as follows. 

  • Requires the use of four or more antibiotics in one year; sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, especially perforated otitis. 
  • Two or more bones, joint infection, meningitis, cellulitis, such as serious bacterial infection. 
  • To have radiologically proven pneumonia more than three times in two years. 
  • Repeated abscesses of skin, lymph nodes or organs 
  • Prolonged diarrhea leading to weight loss 
  • Canker (candida) when not using antibiotics or in the absence of diabetes  
  • Frequent, prolonged and unexplained fever 

Possible not to be flu or flu ? 

To be vaccinated the formula for influenza. There is no such formula for cold. 

However, keep your mouth moist and warm in your throat, do not stay long in crowded environments and clean up your hand frequently, it is good to apply all the rules of good and quality life. 

But public transport, crowded workplaces, coexistence with young children can inevitably have a cold every few times every winter. The important thing is to get through this process without getting light and deep.  

In the first 2-3 days, plenty of warm-hot drinks to manage fever and drugs such as paracetamol or ibuprofen for muscle aches, nasal congestion, topical or systemic nasal openers and hot steam in the environment with good support and at least 5-7 days no It is important not to use antibiotics.  

The extra antibiotics you will use will invoke recurrent infections that winter. 

Using lemon and ginger to warm fluids, reducing inflammation to soften the throat or using plant-based lozenges to relieve strains relieves the findings. 

However, whatever you do, you will have a mild fever for 3-5 days, nasal congestion for 5-7 days, and cough for 2 weeks. It is possible to prevent other complications to be added by just managing. 

Worrying, contacting emergency services will often lead to unnecessary investigations and treatment, and will cause you to infect your critical patients. 

You are already using, blood thinners, blood pressure pills and so on. If you have medications, you should ask your doctor for supportive treatments.  

Even, except for black tea, herbal teas and herbal supplements should be limited and should consume carefully. 

While the vitamins and supplements we use to reach the superpowers we are overwhelming, sometimes work in some people, we can say that there is no such miracle in the current situation because there is no evidence level data.  

Prof.Dr.Esin ŞENOL 

Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology 


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